Preview Environments

Jenkins X lets you spin up Preview Environments for your Pull Requests so you can get fast feedback before changes are merged to the main branch. This gives you faster feedback for your changes before they are merged and released and allows you to avoid having human approval inside your release pipeline to speed up delivery of changes merged to master.

When the Preview Environment is up and running Jenkins X will comment on your Pull Request with a link so in one click your team members can try out the preview!


To see how to create a Preview Environment on a Pull Request see this demo:

Generating a preview environment

In a typical Jenkins X development scenario, users make changes to an application that has been imported or created via a quickstart.

When the developer makes the change to their branch, with the ultimate goal of merging those branch changes into the main branch for deployment to production, they save their changes from within their integrated development environment (IDE) and commit it to the source repository, such as GitHub. The process to generate a preview environment is typically like committing code in a traditional development environment:

  1. A developer makes a branch to their local cloned source repository to create a new feature:
git checkout -b acme-feature1
  1. The developer makes changes to the source code in their branch and adds the affected files to the commit queue:
git add index.html server.js
  1. The developer commits the files adding a comment about what has changed:
    git commit -m "nifty new image added to the index file"
  1. The developer runs git push to send the code back to the remote repository and create a pull request:
    git push origin acme-feature1
  1. The program displays a link to a pull request. The developer can highlight the URL, right-click and choose Open URL to see the GitHub page in their browser.

  2. Jenkins X creates a preview environment in the PR for the application changes and displays a link to evaluate the new feature:

The preview environment is created whenever a pull request to the main branch is created in the repository, allowing any relevant user to validate or evaluate features, bugfixes, or security hotfix. Then, as additional commits are added to the PR branch the preview environment is automatically updated.

Reviewing the preview environment

The development bot created during the installation process sends a notification email to the developer as well as the designated repository approver that a PR is ready for review. During the approval process, the approver can click on the preview application with the code changes for testing and validation.

When the approver confirms the code and functionality changes, they can approve with a simple comment on the Pull Request that merges the code changes back to the main branch and initiate a release candidate build with the new feature:


The code is merged to the main branch, and the release is created and will appear in the Releases tab of the git repository along with any associated images or helm charts. Usually this then triggers Promotion to other environments.

How it works

the jx preview create command creates a new Preview custom resource for each Pull Request on each repository so that we can track the resources and cleanly remove them when you run jx preview destroy pr jx preview gc

For reference see the Preview.Spec documentation

Once the Preview resource is created with its associated preview namespace the jx preview create command will execute helmfile sync of the preview/helmfile.yaml file to deploy all of the associated helm charts to the preview namespace.

When the helmfile sync is complete a comment is added to the Pull Request that the preview has been created. If a URL can be detected in the preview namespace it is added to the Pull Request as a comment so that your team can try it out and give fast feedback.

When the Pull Request is merged or closed the jx preview gc command kicks in periodically to remove any old preview environments.

When previews fail

A preview can fail to create for a multitude of reasons; bad helm charts, missing secrets/volumes, invalid configuration in jx-requirements.yml, bad image names, no capacity on the server to name but a few. Unfortunately helmfile sync does not give much information other than it succeeded of failed which can be confusing.

To improve feedback on why some previews can fail we have added additional output in the jx preview create command to tail the kubernetes events in the preview namespace. This basically runs kubectl exec get event -n $PREVIEW_NAMESPACE -w and adds the output to the pipeline output (prefixed with $PREVIEW_NAMESPACE:

This means the reason for why a preview fails should appear as a kubernetes event in the pipeline log.

e.g. if you make a mistake configuraing the helm chart on your preview you should see the error in the pipeline log. To fix the error just modify the code and git commit and push the fix and you should see the new results in the pipeline log.

Configure the preview URL

Depending on your helm chart or dependent charts you may wish to customise the kubernetes Service or Ingress name used to find the URL to use in the Preview Pull Request command and in the UI integrations to visualise the current Previews.

You can specify the Service or Ingress name via the JX_PREVIEW_SERVICE environment variable name.

e.g. add the following line to your .jx/ file, creating the file if it doesn’t exist:

export JX_PREVIEW_SERVICE="my-custom-service-or-ingress"

If you need to add a path to the current preview service URL host name you can set JX_PREVIEW_PATH

e.g. add the following line to your .jx/ file, creating the file if it doesn’t exist:

export JX_PREVIEW_PATH="/customers/acme"

Then that path will be appended to the preview URL’s host name.

Adding more charts

It’s common when creating, for example, a web front end to need a backend or database to work from to verify that the microservice works.

For each application the preview environment is defined by helmfile at preview/helmfile.yaml.

You can modify the preview/helmfile.yaml file to add any helm chart dependencies you require.

You can find possible charts to install by searching helm. e.g. to find a postgresql chart try:

helm search repo postgres

Once you know the chart and the repository its in you can add it to your repositories and releases section of the preview/helmfile.yaml file (the postgresql section in dependencies array):

- name: stable

- chart: stable/postgresql
  name: mydb
  version: 2.6.2


Adding more resources

If you need to add some kubernetes resources you can add those using the local chart source code model as described in how to add new kubernetes resources

Additional preview steps

It’s common to want to test out previews using system tests or integration tests. Or you may wish to run some kind of cypress or selenium tests

You can do this by adding additional steps in the .lighthouse/jenkins-x/pullrequest.yaml file.

To interact with the preview environment you will need to know its namespace and URL. So the additional step should source the .jx/ file to setup the environment variables (which are defined below).

e.g. here is an additional step to curl the preview URL after the jx preview create step:

- name: test-preview
  image: golang:1.15
  script: |
    #!/usr/bin/env sh
    source .jx/
    curl -v $PREVIEW_URL    

Environment variables

The following variables are added to the .jx/ file by the jx preview create command:

  • PREVIEW_URL the URL of the preview environment if it can be discovered
  • PREVIEW_NAME the name of the Preview custom resource which has the full metadata
  • PREVIEW_NAMESPACE the namespace of the preview environment which you can use via myservice.$PREVIEW_NAMESPACE.svc.cluster.local to access services in your preview

Scaling Preview Environments

A classic issue with preview environments is the number of pods that will grow with the number of applications, pull requests and dependencies. One solution is to use Osiris to automatically scale down the preview environments which are idle. You can read the admin guide on scaling preview environments to install Osiris in your cluster.

Further reading

To get more detail on using preview environments check out this blog post

Last modified August 10, 2021: fix: add docs on custom preview URL (6ef7b743f3)